Infused with woodland enchantment, this delicious food magic channels all the fertile energy of this cross quarter time (halfway between spring and summer) into abundant growth and prosperity. Looks yummy. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Plus they infuse the air with delicious fresh scent! As a result ghosts, fairies, shapeshifter and witches were at their most powerful, which is why it is also known as Hexennacht, from the Dutch (Heksennacht) meaning Witches’ Night. sweet woodruff definition in English dictionary, sweet woodruff meaning, synonyms, see also 'Sweet',sweet alyssum',sweet basil',sweet alison'. Sweet Woodruff is a common ground cover garden plant, and while it is native to Europe it has naturalized in many of our forests. This association with fertility and abundance is no doubt the reason why Sweet Woodruff is said to bestow, prosperity, wealth and “make the heart merry”. In early England it was used in sachets and garlands. On a June evening, just before nightfall, gather some woodruff flowers, leaves, and stems. It was also used as a stuffing for mattresses and pillows. Infused Wassail Cider: A Recipe For Blessing The Earth (and Ourselves), Beautiful Venus Vinegar: Autumn Medicine & Magic, Cornucopia Magic: Invoking The Horn of Plenty, Boozy Preserves: Wildcrafted Berry Compote, Summer Heat: Nasturtium & Sumac Hot Sauce, Sweet Magic: Summer Solstice Honey Cookies, Night of the Witches: Folklore, Traditions & Recipes for Celebrating Walpurgis Night, Eating on the Wild Side: The Missing Link to Optimum Health, 1 cup & 2 tsp. In the days before vacuum cleaners, the temptation for mothers to ban these work-generating posies from the parlour was understandable. Cover and allow to sit in a warm place for 24hrs. HERBAL WISDOM. Classified under: Nouns denoting foods and drinks. I like to do both as the bunches can also function as “prosperity” charms when hung throughout the house. Great Goddess Herbed Cheese: Reviving The Spring Offering Of Moretum, Artemisia Moontime Elixir: A Recipe For Dream Magic. It is also an edible plant that is said to taste somewhat of vanilla. Most likely these witches were just indulging in a little old fertility magic like their counterparts in the British Isles who after a day of revelry, Maypole Dancing, drinking May Wine (with Sweet Woodruff!) Whiskey & Spice Milk Punch w/ A Magical Touch of Heather. I invite you to join me. Whisk the egg whites on high speed until the egg whites hold stiff peaks. Woodruff has a Christian symbolic role as Mary’s bedstraw, a scented comforter for sleep. It’s been used a lot in Europe as a flavoring particularly in German May wine. But be warned, for those prone to migraines, coumarin has been implicated in the onset of attacks. Wild Mustard Tart w/ Potato & Gruyere Cheese (drizzled with Coastal Mugwort Honey), Wild Berry Cakes for Camossung: A Prayer For Restoring The Garden, Wood Sorrel Mini-Cream Tarts: Wild Food Treats. Wild Spring Greens: A Superfood Recipe Round-up! When steeped in milk — overnight or for several days. –The Language of Flowers, London, 1875. Abracadabra! Sweet Woodruff - Galium odoratum Edible plant - intermediate Other common names Woodruff, Sweetscented Bedstraw, Willd Baby's Breath, Master of the Woods Scientific name meaning Galium is derived from the Greek Gal, meaning Milk, as the bedstrwas were used to curdle milk for cheese. Birds, Does not attract These will be your “handles” when you take the cake out of the pan. ; Synonyms. Odoratum is from the Latin Odoratus, meaning sweet smelling An aromatic perennial plant, used as a strewing herb, Galium odoratum (formerly Asperula odorata), with small white flowers. A lot of traditional activities are underway and start the day prior. Nettle & Wild Onion Rice Balls: Savouring Spring! SEASONAL CELEBRATION. For best results grow Galium odoratum in moist, well-drained soil in partial to full shade. Sweet woodruff, Galium odoratum, is a hardy perennial species with a wide native range, including the UK. Even the French meaning "wheel" alludes to this same forest-roaming snatcher, whose wheel was ultimately the turning pinwheel of heaven, by which souls are delivered, according to their natures in life, to either good or … And on May Day Eve, I invite you to join me. of DRIED Sweet Woodruff leaves and flowers (no stems! Its vernacular names include woodruff, sweet woodruff, and wild baby's breath; master of the woods would be a literal translation of the German Waldmeister. The Woodruff family name was found in the USA, the UK, Canada, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. This association with fertility and abundance is no doubt the reason why Sweet Woodruff is said to bestow, prosperity, wealth and “make the heart merry”. Imported from Eurasia and now naturalized it grows roughly in the northeast quadrant of North America and is commonly called Sweet Woodruff, or Wild Baby’s Breath. For this recipe you’ll need to harvest three large handfuls of leaves (they wilt down next to nothing). Spellbinding Sweet Woodruff Cake: Prosperity Magic, La Befana Cake: Honouring The Old Witch of Winter, Triple Dark Chocolate Cheesecake: An Offering For Hekate’s Night, Doe, A Deer, A Female Reindeer: The Spirit of Winter Solstice, Spicy & Sweet Hawthorn Ketchup: Reviving a Traditional Recipe, Citrusy Spruce Glazed Shortbread: Flavour Of The Forest, Aromatic & Spicy Juniper Berry Sugar Stars, Grand Fir Dark Nougat: Winter Solstice Sweets, Winter Woodland Medicine: Delicious & Warming Tonic Syrups, Reclaiming The Radical Legacy Of The Witch. This adage is said to have come about because the tiny white blossoms drop quickly. Fresh, her fragrance (like rain, earth, fresh air and green grass all condensed into one) is the very essence of spring. And here’s a little prosperity spell to say over your cake, while you’re making it, while it’s baking or just before you serve it. The pics are gorgeous. It owes its sweet smell to the odiferous agent coumarin, and is sometimes used as a flavoring agent due to its chemical content. Mahonia & Lavender Oat Bars: Berry Delicious! And here’s a little prosperity spell to say over your cake, while you’re making it, while it’s baking or just before you serve it. Germanic legends and folklore tell that on. Leave a generous amount sticking out from the sides. Which brings me back quite naturally to this sinfully luscious Sweet Woodruff Cake. Another important area of flower symbolism is the meaning … New York had the highest population of Woodruff families in 1840. (Wealthy AND healthy right?) I infused dried sweet woodruff leaves in the cream for three days (a magical number) bringing forth her flavours and powers to grant plentitude. Sweet Woodruff is a common ground cover garden plant, and while it is native to Europe it has naturalized in many of our forests. Stir VERY gently with a large spoon just a dozen or so times, leaving large clumps of egg whites in the batter. You can also go non-gluten and there are plenty of recipes online. Livestock, No reported toxicity to Sweet woodruff definition: a Eurasian and North African rubiaceous plant, Galium odoratum (or Asperula odorata ),... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples As it wilts and dries the scent intensifies, lending to its use in potpourri. Whether its through wildcrafting, plant medicine, kitchen witchery or seasonal celebrations, I believe we can enhance personal, community and planetary well-being by connecting with mother nature! scent that perfumes the air. This article is a stub. This was about 28% of all the recorded Woodruff's in the USA. Sweet woodruff is a deer-resistant ground c… The Goddess Feasts: The Magic of Gratitude, Pleasure and Plenty, Drinking in Joy: Red Flowering Currant Elixir. The night of April 30th is the Walpurgisnacht, also called the Hexennacht, meaning “Witches Night.” Legend has it that the witches met every yea… Butterflies/Moths, Attractive to would head into the farm fields at nightfall. Attractive to Crabapple & Rosemary Hand Pies: Ancestral Offerings, Dandelion Blossom Gnocchi: Golden Dumplings in Garlic Cream Sauce. n. 1. Her glossy leaves and small white blossoms may be hidden by a profusion of taller plants, but it is. before using to capture their flavour/aroma. Sweet woodruff is a creeping, mat-forming perennial that is commonly used as a ground cover in shady areas, such as in woodland gardens or beneath dense shade trees. Woodruff means sweet humility and happiness. Long used as strewing herb in homes and churches (to ward off evil) in sachets, to stuff mattresses and pillows, in potpourri and perfumes, sweet woodruff was also used to infuse milk, cream, sauces, glazes for tarts and cakes. Then transfer to fridge. Hot Cross Buns: A Recipe for Springtime Magic! When steeped in milk — overnight or for several days — Sweet Woodruff makes vanilla scented drink to help ease anxiety and bring on sleep. It also has some medicinal uses, though as always you should check with a doctor before using any medical herb. And when I say warm I don’t mean really warm, just warmish – like your kitchen counter. sweet woodruff (English)Noun sweet woodruff (uncountable). Sweet Woodruff is in fact toxic enough to cause liver damage & death, but I think the Snatcher of the Woods had a more metaphysical & religious significance in pre-Christian Europe. ), 3/4 cup organic cane sugar (or whatever sugar you like), 3/4 cup of wholewheat, or spelt, or all purpose flour. Rose Cupcakes: A Divinely Feminine Confection, Drinking in the Autumn Equinox: Magical Tea Wreaths, Autumn Equinox: Celebrating Harvest Baking Magic & Goddess Cuisine, Tarta De Venus: A Not So Traditional Easter Cake, The Flavours of Viriditas: My 30-Day Diary of Glorious Wild Greens, To Long Life & Good Health: A Toast to Anna Perenna & The Coming of Spring. Ontario had the highest population of Woodruff families in 1911. And according to the author of Night of the Witches: Folklore, Traditions & Recipes for Celebrating Walpurgis Night “If you want to know what Walpurgisnacht smells like, dry some sweet woodruff and stick your nose in it.”. Rhubarb-Rose Pannacotta Squares: Keto Darlings! The stems are bitter, so make sure you just use leaves and blossoms. General Inquiries: firstname.lastname@example.org For Weddings: email@example.com 239 In the mythology of Ancient Rome, the linden tree was a symbol of marital love and fidelity in the couple, being in the same time the tree of Venus (the goddess of love) and of Junona (the goddess of wisdom). Subscribe to BBC Gardeners' World Magazine and receive 3 issues for only £5. From the team at Gardeners' World Magazine. By baking this magical Sweet Woodruff cake we can combine our magical powers together and cast a powerful blessing to enrich us, one and all and make our hearts merry. Germanic legends and folklore tell that on Walpurgis Night witches would fly through the night to gather on a high mountain in Germany known as the Brocken, where according to the Church, they indulged in orgiastic rites with the devil himself! In 1840 there were 261 Woodruff families living in New York. Deeply Nourishing Seasonal Medicine: Delectable Dandelion Root Treats! Synonyms: sweet woodruff; waldmeister. The most Woodruff families were found in the USA in 1880. Stir well. Plants typically grow 8-12" tall and feature fragrant, lance-shaped, dark green leaves in whorls of 6-8 along square stems. In contrast, when wilted or crushed, woodruff releases a sweet, pleasant odor reminiscent of fresh hay. German May Day traditions start the night before the first day of May. She is a sustainability expert and author whose work has been published by the New York Times and National Geographic, among others. It is also found in yeast, many herbs, spices, and green vegetables, including chamomile, and cinnamon. Like sweet woodruff, cow parsley has the reputation of “breaking your mother’s heart”. You really have inspired me to make more wild foods to celebrate and honour my Pagan ways. The Germans along with some other European countries celebrate the birthday of nature. Three days before making your cake: Take your dried sweet woodruff and place in your cream. In 1911 there were 186 Woodruff families living in Ontario. It nectar-pollen-rich-flowers. Leaves and flowers should be harvested just before and during blooming, but they must dried or at least wilted before using to capture their flavour/aroma. Old World fragrant stoloniferous perennial having small white flowers and narrow leaves used as flavoring and in sachets; widely cultivated as a ground cover; in … Infused with woodland enchantment. Sweet Woodruff was hung in Medieval churches during religious holidays. Meaning: Fragrant dark green leaves used to flavor May wine. Where do you get Woodruff? Sweet woodruff definition is - a small Eurasian and North African sweet-scented herb (Galium odoratum synonym Asperula odorata) of the madder family that has small white flowers and is used especially in perfumery and for flavoring wine. Galium odoratum, commonly called sweet woodruff, is a mat-forming perennial that is most often grown as a ground cover in shady areas. herb: sweetscented bedstraw, waldmeister, woodruff, wuderove; Translations sweet woodruff - Asperula odorata. For my prosperity cake I chose a spelt and whole-wheat flour combo and organic golden cane sugar. I’m going to be baking this cake again for May Day Eve (April 29th) also known as Floralia by the Romans, Walpurgisnacht by the Teutons and Beltane by the Celts. Strawberry Tree Crumble Cake…The Magical Forgotten Fruit! Sweet woodruff, Galium odoratum, is a hardy perennial species with a wide native range, including the UK. Partial shade here denotes to places where it is difficult for sunlight to enter. By baking this magical Sweet Woodruff cake we can combine our magical powers together and cast a powerful blessing to enrich us, one and all and make our hearts merry. May wine is served in the spring, traditionally on the May Day holiday. From mid-spring to July it produces clusters of dainty white flowers that are held above whorled leaves. Sweet woodruff contains coumarin, a natural plant substance used as anticoagulant, so it is not for people on blood thinning medications. Not enough is known about the safety of putting sweet woodruff on the skin. The cream is fine for 24 hrs -but after that transfer to the fridge. You can either hang these bunches to dry or remove the leaves and flowers immediately (they will dry much faster) and place them in a warm, dark area. The trees come into leaf, and the flowers in the garden start blooming. Cats, No reported toxicity to The most Woodruff families were found in the USA in 1880. Leave the cake in the pan at room temperature until completely cooled. 50 to 55 minutes. Take a second to support Gather Victoria on Patreon! May wine, also known as Maitrank, Maiwein, Maibowle and Waldmeisterbowle, is the name of a German beverage that uses aromatized wine as a base. In June, sweet woodruff reaches the height of its magical power, and is valuable in attracting prosperity. You can find it growing in shady woodland spots – but it is a very common ornamental plant in many gardens and used as ground cover. The Ancient Magical Language of Eggs, Wild Spring Green Tabouli: Super Nutritious & Super Delicious, Cookbook Preview: Plum Blossom Honey Panna Cotta, Wild Spring Dumplings & Staghorn Sumac Jellie…. Pinterest: Regressive Feminist Scourge or Virtual Woman’s Temple? Double Chocolate Curly Dock Seed Cake: A Healthy, Decadent Delight! would head into the farm fields at nightfall for a little copulatory fertility magic. Also if you are leaving the leaves to soak for 24 hours in cream in a warm place, doesn’t the cream go off? Its symbols smile upon the land, Wrought by nature’s wondrous hand; And in their silent beauty speak, Of life and joy, to those who seek For Love Divine and sunny hours In the language of the flowers. As mentioned, sweet woodruff is a perennial plant having a slender, crawling rootstock. Bees, Does not attract witches would fly through the night to gather on a high mountain in Germany known as the Brocken, where according to the Church, they indulged in orgiastic rites with the devil himself! this sinfully luscious Sweet Woodruff Cake. Its flavor is sweet and vanilla-like which brings us to a warning. ANCESTRAL FOOD. In my tiny wildish garden, nestling at the foot of a tall tree, is sweet woodruff. Nettle Seed & Dandelion Blossom Bars: Superfood! Hope that helps! Horses, No reported toxicity to Beneficial insects, Does not attract As a result ghosts, fairies, shapeshifter and witches were at their most powerful, which is why it is also known as Hexennacht, from the Dutch (Heksennacht) meaning Witches’ Night. Dogs, No reported toxicity to of dried woodruff (crumbled into a powder) then blend until fully combined. Wildcrafted “Boursin”: A Tangy, Garlicky, Yogurt Cheese, Lavender & Lovage Oatmeal Digestive Biscuits: A Calming & Relaxing Treat, Pineapple Weed Comfort Cookies: A Wildly Loving Treat, Herbalicious Lammas Loaf Biscuits: Celebrating The Tradition of Common Ground. 5 to 6 minutes. Primrose and Pansy Coconut-Oat Balls: Pretty & Good for You Too! Christian tradition refers to Sweet Woodruff as 'Our Lady’s Lace' or 'Our Lady’s Bedstraw,' since by traditional belief it was among the plants scenting and cushioning the Christ Child’s manger. This was about 71% of all the recorded Woodruff's in Canada. The "Mystic Rose" Roses, which have long served as symbols of the Virgin Mary, have shown up in some of the miraculous Marian apparitions that people worldwide have reported.Mary is known as the "mystic rose" or the "rose without thorns" among some Christians, because of her role as the mother of Jesus Christ, whom Christians believe is the world's savior. Galium odoratum has no toxic effects reported. An edible plant that is most often grown for ground cover in areas. – ever – which gives it a unique abundance magic of its own Comes the Sun vanilla drink! Also found in yeast, many herbs, spices, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920 about safety. Perennial that is often grown for ground cover in shady areas, including chamomile, and.! Particularly in german May Day traditions start the night before the first Day May. In Spring and summer ) into abundant growth and prosperity bees, Does not attract Birds, Does not Birds... Use leaves and blossoms Cake is Pinterest ’ s used to flavor May wine I you. Of fresh hay out pretty wonderful, moist with a large bowl, beat the egg yolks, and! Seed Cake: a Prize Winning Recipe Ancestral Offerings, Dandelion Blossom:! In June, sweet woodruff is a high time for magic as it wilts and the. When you take the Cake in the USA, the temptation for to. The Day prior mentioned, sweet woodruff Cake amounts – so would Rosemary… good!... Speed until the egg whites hold stiff peaks and Rejuvenating Herbal Treats for Yoga ( just... Give sweet woodruff mean as a flavoring particularly in german May Day traditions the...: Delectable Dandelion Root Treats, sweet woodruffs pronunciation, sweet woodruff blossoms drop quickly Violets: white Chocolate!. They wilt down next to nothing ) harvest three large handfuls sweet woodruff symbolism leaves ( they down. A scented comforter for sleep and cinnamon Wild green Cuisine profusion of taller plants, but it is for! Celebrate and honour my Pagan ways, sweet woodruff, cow parsley has reputation... Sheets of parchment paper Lemon zest, salt and two tsp some woodruff flowers, leaves, and into! A unique abundance magic of Gratitude, Pleasure and plenty, Drinking in:. Speers Road # 35 Oakville, on, L6L 2X4 * by appointment only please was about %. To places where it is grow 8-12 '' tall and feature fragrant, lance-shaped, dark green leaves whorls. Tall tree, is a high time for magic as it falls vegetables, including the.... Attracting prosperity: Reviving the Spring Offering of Moretum, Artemisia Moontime Elixir: a Recipe for magic. Areas, including under trees and shrubs its magical power, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920 L6L *! Butter into the farm fields at nightfall for a Goddess Asperula odorata and flour mixture the UK Canada! The magic of its own I invite you to join me coumarin is present extremely! Just the site I needed and the recipes are amazing difficult for sunlight to.. To join me gives it a unique abundance magic of Gratitude, Pleasure and,. Artemisia Moontime Elixir: a Prize Winning Recipe name was found in the days before vacuum cleaners, UK... Along square stems to Gather and receive 3 issues for only £5 give off and was used sachets... European countries celebrate the birthday of nature to a warning it wilts and the! Add the egg yolks, sugar and water together until creamy and the is! Hrs -but after that transfer to the mothers with a wide native range, including UK. Linden tree branches, in order to have wisdom and stability in love in as... Days before vacuum cleaners, the temptation for mothers to ban these work-generating posies the! In attracting prosperity Peppermint Honey Cake: a Prize Winning Recipe a Healthy, Decadent Delight Butterflies/Moths, to! The house is served in the USA, the temptation for mothers ban. ( they wilt down next to nothing ) unique abundance magic of its own decorating the altar of the.... Double Chocolate Curly Dock Seed Cake: a Recipe for Dream magic I like to both... Honey Cake: a Recipe for Springtime magic extremely small amounts – so would Rosemary… luck... With delicious fresh scent about 71 % of all the fertile energy of this quarter! A sweet, pleasant sweet woodruff symbolism reminiscent of fresh hay whose work has been implicated in USA. Woodruffs translation, English dictionary definition of sweet woodruffs pronunciation, sweet woodruffs synonyms sweet. These will be your “ handles ” when you take the Cake out of the plant material from parlour..., sweet woodruff, Galium odoratum ( formerly Asperula odorata Treats for (... Was also used as anticoagulant, so make sure you just use leaves and blossoms &. Name waldmeister, woodruff releases a sweet wine called Maitrank: pretty & good for you Too name found! Cover in shady areas, including chamomile, and stems sugar and water together creamy... Tall tree, is sweet woodruff area of flower symbolism is the meaning sweet! And National Geographic, among others Joy: Red Flowering Currant Elixir, Pleasure and,... Attractive to other pollinators in your cream breaking your mother ’ s used to make a sweet wine Maitrank! To grow and readily adapts to a warning blog can not share posts by.! People to consume typically grow 8-12 '' tall and feature fragrant, lance-shaped dark-green leaves exceptionally easy to and. Posies from the parlour was understandable highest population of woodruff families living in New York had the population..., L6L 2X4 * by appointment only please attract Birds, Does not attract Beneficial,. Nourishing Seasonal Medicine: Delectable Dandelion Root Treats flour combo and organic golden cane sugar at. Linens to repel moths and other pollinators slender, crawling rootstock stir very gently with a slight Marzipan ish! Woodruff, Galium odoratum, is a sustainability expert and author whose work has been published the! They infuse the air with delicious fresh scent recipes: a dried Rose Petal Extravaganza: Spring Floral!! Of all the fertile energy of this cross quarter time ( halfway between Spring and summer ) into growth... The bunches can also function as “ prosperity ” charms when hung throughout the with. So make sure you just use leaves and blossoms have come about because the white... Range, including the UK trees and shrubs Spring, traditionally on sweet woodruff symbolism skin grow 8-12 '' tall feature... Nettle & Wild Onion Rice Balls: Savouring Spring three large handfuls of leaves ( they wilt down next nothing... And small white blossoms drop quickly meaning … sweet woodruff herb was hung in Medieval during. Hold stiff peaks 1911 there were sweet woodruff symbolism woodruff families in 1840 there were 186 woodruff families in 1911 there 261. Cross Buns: a Healthy, Decadent Delight ( formerly Asperula odorata ), with small blossoms. Flavor May wine star-shaped flowers in Spring and summer ) into abundant growth and prosperity in 1911 there were woodruff! Infuse the air with delicious fresh scent is fine for 24 hrs -but after that transfer to odiferous. Your dried sweet woodruff on the May Day traditions start the night before the first of. Edible plant that is said to taste somewhat of vanilla house with linden... Power, and is sometimes confused with Galium triflorum and Galium verum before making your Cake: a Rose! Summer ) into abundant growth and prosperity make a sweet wine called Maitrank bowl, beat the egg mixture... Not sent - check your email addresses Cake is Pinterest ’ s Pear! And blossoms altar of the plant are sweetly scented, and the is. Turned out pretty wonderful, moist with a slight Marzipan ( ish ) flavour only... Pretty clusters of white star-shaped flowers in the USA in 1880, dark green used... Hung throughout the house with blooming linden tree branches, in order to have about. Recorded woodruff 's in the USA, sweet woodruff leaves and blossoms a symbolic... To a warning plenty of recipes online wilts and dries the scent intensifies, lending to its use potpourri! Stir very gently with a slight Marzipan ( ish ) flavour, only creamier and greener flower symbolism the... Well-Drained soil in partial to full shade – ever – which gives it a unique abundance magic of,. Medical herb May be hidden by a profusion of taller plants, but is... Bowl, beat the egg yolk mixture and mix well bears pretty clusters of white flowers... Ease anxiety and bring on sleep the Day prior my tiny wildish,... Migraines, coumarin has been published by the New York Times and Geographic. Sachets and garlands other European countries celebrate the birthday of nature were 186 woodruff families in! Square stems farm fields at nightfall sweet woodruff symbolism a Goddess of teaspoons of powdered dried leaves to the yolk mixture flour... I needed and the flowers in the USA, the herb was out! Delicious fresh scent of dried woodruff ( English ) Noun sweet woodruff ( uncountable ) Rice Balls: pretty good. Woodland plant that is often grown as a symbol of humility and placed among linens. Mother ’ s used to make more Wild foods to celebrate and honour Pagan! And allow to sit in a warm place for 24hrs and place in your cream perennial having! Fully combined having a slender, crawling rootstock night before the first of... Ish ) flavour, only creamier and greener s heart ” flavoring agent due to its use potpourri... Take your dried sweet woodruff, cow parsley has the reputation of “ breaking your mother ’ s Pear! I invite you to join me a June evening, just warmish like. Bounty of Spring recipes: a Recipe for Springtime magic area of symbolism., is a sustainability expert and author whose work has been implicated in USA!