[29], In March 1945, France equipped its 401st and 403rd Anti-Aircraft artillery regiment with captured German 8.8 guns, associated with British GL Mk. Gander, Terry. Bundesarchive photo. The gun would then fire and recoil; during the return stroke, the empty case would be thrown backward by levers, after which a cam would engage and recock the gun. For the Battle of France in 1940, the army was supported by eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed flak battalions. It was this muzzle velocity, combined with a projectile of high weight, that made the 8.8 cm Flak one of the great World War II anti-tank guns. [citation needed] On July 18 and 19 1944 a Luftwaffe 8.8 cm anti-aircraft battery was re-purposed by then Major Hans von Luck to attack British tanks near Cagny taking part in Operation Goodwood. Lulu Publishing. [citation needed] The flak detachment with 88s proved accurate and versatile in combat against mainly land targets, the high muzzle velocity and large caliber making it an excellent long-range anti-vehicle and anti-bunker weapon. The Kommandogerät systems were introduced starting in 1925, and the Kommandogerät p40 was the standard system during the majority of the war. [13], Given very low production numbers and ongoing problems with the Flak 41, attempts were made to install the Flak 41 barrel onto other guns chassis. Some groups were subsequently assigned to mobile motorcycle sections. By 1915, the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. The third is a T-34/85 rearmed with a Tiger’s 8.8cm gun – the “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm KwK 36 L/56“. A trained crew took about two minutes to bring the piece into action. The FlaK 88 is a German anti-aircraft/anti-tank artillery gun featured in all WWII Call of Duty games, as well as a brief appearance in Call of Duty: Black Ops III. In comparison, the British 3.7-inch (94 mm) Mark 3 fired a 13 kg (29 lb) projectile at 790 m/s (2,600 ft/s) to an effective ceiling of 10,600 meters (34,800 ft), and the American 90 mm M1 fired a 10 kg (22 lb) shell at 820 m/s (2,700 ft/s) to the same height, while the Italian Cannone da 90/53 fired a 10.33 kg projectile at 830 m/s to an effective ceiling of 12,000 meters (39,000 ft). The higher-level tactical unit was usually a mixed anti-aircraft battalion (gemischte Flak-Abteilung). Of the latter, a small number were 10.5 cm Flak 38s or 39s, the majority were 8.8 cm Flak 18s, 36s or 37s. At the time that Rheinmetall developed the Flak 41, Krupp tried to compete with their 8.8 cm Gerät 42 proposal, which was not accepted for production as an anti-aircraft gun. Casualties among the legion's 88 mm gun batteries in the Spanish Civil War were second only to those among the bomber pilots. [citation needed]. During 1942 tests were made using the Flak 41 barrel and Flak 37 chassis but these identified that the chassis could not take the strain even when strengthened. Some flak batteries used guns worn out from firing beyond their operational lives, which typically limited their effective ceiling to 7,470 meters.[34]. At the end of 1940, 44 pieces and relative firing stations were available. A German 88mm artillery piece is towed by a SdKfz 6 half-track in North Africa, April, 1941. For Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, Germany deployed the 8.8 cm Flak in 51 mixed AA battalions. By December 31, 1944, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion had fired a total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons. Similarly, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion was temporarily equipped with a miscellany of captured German 88 mm guns and 105 mm and 150 mm howitzers. Only a few were built in mid-1993, the entire project was generally regarded as unsuccessful.[32]. Krupp secretly arranged for the Swedish Bofors company to acquire rights to Krupp artillery in exchange for research and production facilities at the Bofors Works in Karlskoga. The 88mm was typically towed by a half-track that carried the gun crew and ammunition. When the U.S. Army's M3 Stuart and M4 Sherman tanks pursued, concealed German guns picked them off at ranges far beyond those of their 37 mm and 75 mm guns respectively. [N 4] It totaled 12 such guns on average, supplemented by light guns. D 2030 – 8,8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/2 (L/71), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944. Inexperienced U.S. tankers and commanders rushed into a valley at Faid only to be obliterated. [15] An American tanker who survived losing three tanks wrote to Chrysler after V-E Day that "an 88 sure makes quick work of them. This experience also demonstrated a number of minor problems and potential improvement opportunities. After Hitler took power in 1933, Germany rapidly re-armed. The batteries began arriving in Italy a few days after Italy entered the war, and were initially assigned in part to the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (Voluntary Militia for National Security, MACA), for the protection of the Italian main cities and partly sent in Libya, for the protection of ports. [9] Repeated high tank loss from well-placed 8.8 cm Flak guns in the battles of Halfaya Pass earned it the nickname "Hellfire Pass". A battery of four guns typically deployed in a square formation connected by cables to a fire-control unit (Kommandogerät 40) in the center. [citation needed] The Flak 18s were extensively deployed during the all-aerial combat of the Battle of Chongqing and Chengdu.[26]. [9] With the increase of aircraft performance, many armies developed dedicated AA guns with a high muzzle velocity – allowing the projectiles to reach greater altitudes. This resulted in firing rates of 15 to 20 rounds a minute, which was better than similar weapons of the era. Krupp had the majority ownership in Bofors since 1921. Rheinmetall responded with a new 88 mm design with a longer cartridge and a longer barrel. [23] In the proposal presented by the German authorities, the Italian supply of mechanical parts for anti-aircraft guns and Anti-tank guns was also envisaged, so the production of components for artillery was started in the workshops Ansaldo in (Genoa and Pozzuoli) and OTO. Effective range: 14,810 m (16,200 yds) ground target, 7,620 m (25,000 ft) effective ceiling, Maximum range: 11,900 m (39,000 ft) maximum ceiling, Breech: Horizontal sliding block, semiautomatic or manual. Many of these improvements were incorporated into the Flak 36, which had a two-piece barrel for easier replacement of worn liners. In June 1941 at Halfaya Pass on the Libya-Egypt border, thirteen dug-in 88s from the flak battalion of Rommel’s 15th Panzer Division decimated repeated British tank charges. “Small plane, big sky,” say the air defense gunners. Over 21 000 of these 88 mm guns were built. The Legendary 88 mm gun (eighty-eight) is a German anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II. [24] The batteries were supplied complete with a Zeiss firing station Mod. [12], A prototype was ready in early 1941[12] leading to the designation 8.8 cm Flak 41. It was this muzzle velocity, combine… Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles. Tamiya model kit in scale 1:35, MM117 is a rebox released in 1988 | Contents, Previews, Reviews, History + Marketplace | 8.8 cm FlaK | EAN: 4950344995387 One of the most famous weapons used by the Germans in World War II was the Flugabwehrkanoneor Flak for short. Development of the original model led to a wide variety of guns. Because of the high cost and complexity of this weapon, the Germans manufactured relatively few of them, 556 in all. Virginia War Museum, Newport News, Virginia. The PaK 43 (an abbreviation of Panzerjägerkanone 43[35][36]) used a new cruciform mount with the gun much closer to the ground, making it far easier to hide and harder to hit. Most 88mm guns served in Luftwaffe flak regiments (24 guns) or Wehrmacht mixed anti-aircraft battalions (FlaK Abteilungen with 4 to 8 guns). Faircount Media Group. Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston (PAK 43 and Flak 37). [citation needed], The Flak 36 guns were briefly issued in late 1944 to the American Seventh Army as captured weapons. It appears as though the T-34(r) mit 8.8… In fact all 8.8 cm Flak guns were capable of operation in the dual role.[11]. [9], The guns were usually equipped with a Kommandogerät system, which was an analog gunnery computer. The Flak 37/41 had the simplified fuze setter of the 8.8-cm Flak 41. The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. Type: medium anti-aircraft gun, but often used as anti-tank or field gun. Extra features such as KS750 motorcycle, ammunition rack, shells, and range finder included for a realistic display. The word means ‘aircraft defense canon’. The following museums include 8.8 cm Flak guns in their collections. Its performance was said to be comparable to the 12,8 cm Flak, with a lower silhouette than its predecessor and an increased firing rate (up to 25 rounds per minute). The barrel for the 8.8 cm K.Zugflak L/45 was built from steel and was 45 calibers in length. Bad weather grounded the main bomber force, but the assault succeeded, mainly because of the concentrated and accurate fire of the supporting 88 mm guns. But Krupp designers were already working on a longer-barreled 88 that could penetrate Allied tank armor even without tungsten. This page details the development and operational history of the 8.8cm FlaK 18 / FlaK 36 / FlaK 37 (German 88) Anti-Aircraft / Anti-Tank Gun including technical specifications and pictures. A battery of four guns typically deployed for the anti-aircraft role in a square formation connected by cables to a fire-control unit (Kommandogerät 40) in the center. Kauppi forest, on top of Tuomikallio as a memorial, Tampere. Over 100 contemporary photos are used to describe how the gun works, how to maintain and disassemble it and includes nifty stuff such as ammunition, sights and firing tables. These cannons were used against US fighter jets in the early 60s. The Allies had nothing as good, despite one of them designating itself the world's greatest industrial power. [31], During the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s, various Flak guns were used, mainly by the naval artillery of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). Radar aiming systems were also developed to complement these systems. The less open terrain in Italy and Northern France was less suitable for long-range AT guns. The new gun fired a 9.4-kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 1,000 m/s (3,280 ft/s), giving it an effective ceiling of 11,300 meters (37,100 ft) and a maximum of 14,700 meters (48,200 ft), which General der Flakartillerie Otto Wilhelm von Renz said to be "almost equal to the 128-mm. It was introduced in Update 1.63 "Desert Hunters". armour-piercing and high-explosive anti-tank against tanks and other armored vehicles. The 79th Field Artillery Battalion (Provisional) was formed from personnel of the 79th and 179th Field Artillery Groups to fire captured German artillery pieces at the height of an ammunition shortage. [9], Because of problems in service, the guns were almost exclusively used in Germany where they could be properly maintained and serviced. After other parts were strengthened this functioned as desired. The Allies' and Italian weapons were heavier and less mobile, with the Allied weapons being almost useless for ground fire until numerous modifications were carried out. The 8.8 cm Flak was powerful enough to penetrate over 84 mm of armor at a range of 2 km, making it an unparalleled anti-tank weapon during the early days of the war and still formidable against all but the heaviest tanks at the end. "German 88: The Most Famous Gun of the Second World War" Pen and Sword Books Ltd, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 05:24. Tamiya model kit in scale 1:35, 35283 is a rebox released in 2006 | Contents, Previews, Reviews, History + Marketplace | 8.8 cm FlaK | EAN: 4950344352838 Mike Markowitz "[9] It featured a lower silhouette on its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 on its pedestal mounting. Twenty tanks were destroyed by these guns within the first few seconds and at least 40 tanks were knocked out by 8.8 cm Flaks during the engagement. De 88-legende is ontstaan door het succesvolle gebruik van de 88 tegen gronddoelen. The FlaK 41 was used primarily for air defense in the West, so its anti-armor use was limited. As early as 1939 the Luftwaffe asked for newer weapons with an even better performance, to address the problems of defending against attack by high-flying aircraft. Of 190 British tanks engaged (including the heavily armored Matilda II) about 100 were knocked out; German gunners claimed one kill for every 20 rounds fired. “Well, it’s like this. After 1935, the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the Luftwaffe. However, production did not take place as no Flak 41 barrels were available.[13]. It quickly proved to be the best anti-aircraft weapon then available. 7 half-track becoming a common prime mover. However it was immediately evident that the Regio Esercito (Italian Royal Army) did not have at its disposal a tractor with characteristics suitable for towing this piece, given that the task was entrusted to Lancia 3Ro, without all-wheel drive. The Allied weapons' capabilities were augmented by the introduction of proximity fuzes. It was widely used by Germany throughout World War II and is one of the most recognized German weapons of that conflict. Thousands of 88 mm guns were produced throughout the war in various models and mounts. Its rate of fire was 15 to 20 rounds per minute. The German Condor Legion made extensive use of the 8.8 cm Flak 18 in the Spanish Civil War, where its usefulness as an anti-tank weapon and general artillery piece exceeded its role as an anti-aircraft gun. Design. Flak German Anti Aircraft Defenses 1914–45. [4] Its successful use as an improvised anti-tank gun led to the development of a tank gun based upon it: the 8.8 cm KwK 36, with the "KwK" abbreviation standing for Kampfwagen-Kanone (literally "battle vehicle cannon", or "fighting vehicle cannon"), meant to be placed in a gun turret as the tank's primary armament. Flak 36s were often fitted with an armoured shield that provided limited protection for the gunners. When World War II began, more than 2,500 Flak 18, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service. Called wolfram in German, tungsten is a very dense and hard metal. Finally we ran out of ammunition and the Americans didn’t run out of tanks.”. The first deliveries were made in March 1943[12] and, as of August 1944, only 157 were fielded; with 318 in January 1945. [citation needed]. The 88 was typically towed by a half-track (Sd.Kfz 7 or Sd.Kfz 11) with seats for the ten-man crew and some ammunition. Production was cancelled after approximately only 13 units were built as the resources required to build these were similar to those needed to produce a true Flak 41 and those were simply no longer available at the time. After rejecting 75mm designs, the team settled on 88mm (8.8cm/3.46 inches); a caliber long favored by the Imperial German Navy (The 88mm L/45 deck gun on the Type VII U-boat was a completely different weapon and could not fire the same ammunition as the 88mm Flak). [9], Throughout the entire war, the majority of 88 mm guns were used in their original anti-aircraft role. 88 mm Flak ready for firing during Operation Battleaxe (North Africa, June 1941). [30] The guns remained in service with second-line units until 1953 and then were used for training for a few years. Given appropriate ammunition it proved quite capable in both roles. Observing the tracer from the first round in battle, the average, calm gunner might achieve the firing range accuracy shown in the second column with the second round fired at the same target. The Type 99 88 mm AA gun (九九式八糎高射砲, Kyūkyū-shiki hassenchi Koshahō) was an anti-aircraft gun used by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.The Type 99's number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2599 in the Japanese imperial year … p. 90. During the war German 88 mm guns were involved in 377 combat engagements, only 31 were against enemy aircraft. [9] The 8.8 cm Flak was used against heavily armored tanks such as the Char B1 bis and Matilda II, whose frontal armour could not be penetrated by the standard light 3.7 cm anti-tank gun. High-explosive shells with spring-wound or inertia-operated time fuse (up to 30 seconds) were fired at air targets. The loaders would keep the weapon fed with live ammunition which would fire immediately upon insertion—all while the gun layer aimed the weapon according to the data. There were complaints that, due to the apparent ineffectiveness of anti-aircraft defenses as a whole, the guns should be transferred from air defense units to anti-tank[citation needed] duties, but this politically unpopular move was never made. Targeting indicators were attached to the central controller to each of the four guns of a battery, allowing for coordinated fire. This complex device took five men to operate, combining a four-meter optical range finder with a mechanical computer that transmitted elevation and azimuth settings to the guns. Other uses included firing in support of the troops at the front and as a more static anti-aircraft gun for home defence. For the similarly named perk, see Flak Jacket. History: All Rights Reserved. 8.8 cm Flak als anti-tankgeschut. [19] Erwin Rommel's use of the gun to blunt the British counterattack at Arras ended any hope of a breakout from the encirclement of May 1940. One must aim at the predicted location of a moving target, so that projectile and plane arrive simultaneously at the same point in space. Problems with the multi-part barrel construction of the Flak 37 were encountered and a new barrel based on the monoblock construction of the Flak 18 was designed. In some sources it is mistakenly stated that the Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor operation. [9] The Battle of France also saw the introduction of vehicle-mounted 8.8 cm Flak 18s, the so-called "Bunkerknacker" on the Sd.Kfz. The Flak 18 was mounted on a cruciform gun carriage. The designers started again, using 88 mm caliber. Widespread production started with the Nazi rise to power in 1933, and the Flak 18 was available in small numbers when Germany intervened in the Spanish Civil War. Designed as an anti-aircraft gun in the 1920s, it proved to be a devastating anti-tank gun on battlefields from Belgian farmland to the North African deserts and Russian steppes. The 88 On the Tiger II Developments continued on the basic FlaK gun, resulting in the emergence of the 88 FlaK 41 that first saw real action in late 1943 in Tunisia. The Flak 41 had the disadvantage of complexity, and was prone to problems with ammunition, empty cases often jamming on extraction. The 88 fired three main types of ammunition (88 x 571R). It is typically used as either mission objectives to plant explosives on, or more rarely controlled by the player. [9] This was twice as many heavy AA guns as the Air Defence of Great Britain (ADGB) had at the time, with France and the United States having even fewer. It was the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. This resulted in the Giant Würzburg, which had sufficient accuracy to precisely control guns without direct visual contact. The 8.8 cm Flak in the anti-tank role was arguably most effective in the flat and open terrain of Libya, Egypt and the eastern front. Both Flak 18 and Flak 36 had the same permanently attached fuze setter with two "Zünderstellbecher". When World War II began, more than 2,500 Flak 18, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service. This allowed multiple guns to be aimed precisely at the same target by a single command crew of 5 men, instead of requiring trained crews on each gun.[17]. Developed in 1941 by Rheinmetall, in response to the Luftwaffe's request for improved weapons, FlaK 41 fired a 9.4 kg shell at 1,000 m/s, with an effective ceiling of 11,300m. Operation Barbarossa: the Complete Organisational and Statistical Analysis, and Military Simulation Volume IIB. [citation needed] High explosive ammunition was used against aircraft and personnel, and The Flak 30 (Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30) and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II.It was not only the primary German light anti-aircraft gun, but by far the most numerously produced German artillery piece throughout the war. 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The Flak 18/36/37 was roughly comparable to its Italian and Allied counterparts. That said, nice vid! 88mm Flak 36 or 88mm Flugabwehr-Kanone 36 is an anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun fielded by both the Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses. In the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), the German Condor Legion deployed a mobile flak detachment with 88s, which proved accurate and versatile in combat. [citation needed], Initially, the Flak 18 batteries were deployed to protect the airfields and logistics bases of the German Condor legion. I was on a hill as a battery commander with six 88mm anti-tank guns, and the Americans kept sending tanks down this road…Every time they sent a tank we knocked it out. The Germans found that it could outperform the older but larger caliber 10.5cm FlaK 38 and 39 heavy antiaircraft guns. [9] For example, in January 1943 – at a time when Germany was desperately fighting to regain the strategic initiative in the East and was also facing a heavy bombing campaign in the West – expenditures on anti-aircraft defenses were 39 million reichsmarks, whereas all the remaining weapons and munitions production amounted to 93 million (including 20 million of the navy budget and only nine million of the aircraft-related budget). University Press of Kansas. By the end of the war the 88 mm guns had performed far more missions as an anti-tank and direct-fire Field Artillery gun than as an anti-aircraft gun. Starting from October 1942, several batteries, while remaining in German possession, were used by Italian personnel (officers and troops) for the protection of military infrastructures and cities, this practice was further intensified in 1943, reaching more than 100 batteries. Similarly to the anti-aircraft role, as an anti-tank weapon the 8.8 cm Flak was tactically arranged into batteries, usually four guns to each. The prototype Flak 18 appeared in 1928. Bundesarchive photo. The name applies to a series of related guns, the first one officially called the 8.8 cm Flak 18, the improved 8.8 cm Flak 36, and later the 8.8 cm Flak 37. Probably even different rifling pitch. De eerste operationele inzet van de 88 was tijdens de Spaanse burgeroorlog.Dit was ook de plaats waar het kanon voor het eerst tegen gronddoelen werd ingezet met een vernietigend effect vanwege de hoge mondingssnelheid. 'Flak-Track' [20] They were mostly[9] Luftwaffe-subordinated units attached to the Heer at corps or army level, with approximately one battalion per corps. Le Grand Bunker "Musée du Mur de l´Atlantique", Musée du Débarquement, Arromanches-les-Bains, Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr, Berlin-Gatow, Muzeum Śląskie (Silesian Museum), Katowice, Poland. [10] The first such German gun was introduced in 1917, using the 8.8 cm caliber common in the Kaiserliche Marine (navy).[9]. One 76 mm hole in outrigger. It was capable of deploying cluster bombs, as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km. The resulting unit outperformed the 105 mm original and was called the 8.8 cm Flak 39/41. [citation needed] While the US and Italian 90 mm were also used as anti-tank guns—the American gun being in use on their M36 tank destroyer and M26 Pershing heavy tank—their use was considerably more limited than the German 88 due to German tanks being primarily used defensively by 1944 and allied tanks being used en masse for the attack. The 88 mm was used in two main roles: as a mobile heavy anti-aircraft and as an anti-tank gun. [N 1] Flak is a contraction of German Flugabwehrkanone (also referred to as Fliegerabwehrkanone)[5][N 2] meaning "aircraft-defense cannon", the original purpose of the weapon. Bundesarchive photo. [21] The weapon saw continuous use on the eastern front. The parts of the various versions of the guns were interchangeable, and it was not uncommon for various parts to be "mixed and matched" on a particular example. More guns were sent later, and some 88 mm guns were also supplied to Spanish army units. The 88s equipped armored trains, concrete flak towers, and, eventually, the fearsome Tiger tank. There was a leveling jack at the end of each arm. The German 88mm Flak has to be considered the most famous artillery piece of World War II. While the proposal was accepted in principle, the German authorities stated that they did not have that quantity of pieces available, so they paid off the debt in part with 8.8 cm Flak and partly with the 7.5 cm kanon (75/50 in the Italian name). The light anti-aircraft battalion usually did not deploy any 8.8 cm Flaks, the heavy battalions were rarely used in practice. Krupp continued development, resulting in the dreaded 8.8 cm PaK 43 anti-tank gun and the related 8.8 cm KwK 43 tank gun. As an anti-aircraft gun it fired a 9.2 kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 840 m/s to an effective ceiling of 8000 meters,[33] with a maximum ceiling of 9900 meters. The resulting piece was 74 calibers long (78 with the muzzle brake). Photo: Mark Pellegrini / CC BY-SA 2.5 Flak 18 88 30 German Flak 18 88 mm anti aircraft artillery Flak 8,8 cm Flak Crew Paint Victory Kill Rings Flak 18 88mm gun Flak 88 gun ready to firing against aircraft Flak 88 Regiment 24 Artemowsk Winter 1941 Two 88 … Like many weapons of the Third Reich, there was a bewildering proliferation of models and variants. [4] For normal emplacement, one single-axle bogie was detached from the front outrigger and one from the rear, side outriggers were then hinged from the vertical position to the ground; the total time to set up was estimated at two and a half minutes. Clever and deceptive photoshops are one of the best ways to invent a fake tank. [9] During the prototype phase, the army asked for a gun with considerably greater capability. 8.8 cm Flak 18 Had a new semi-automatic breech, making it a high velocity gun. Air defense units were usually deployed with either a Kommandogerät ("command device") fire control computer or a portable Würzburg radar, which were responsible for its high level of accuracy against aircraft. The Würzburg radar series of radars was produced in the thousands and used widely. The first such German gun, the Flak 16, was introduced in 1917, using the 88 mm caliber, common in the Kaiserliche Marine. They go through them just like they were a piece of paper". The 8.8 cm Flak performed well in its original role of an anti-aircraft gun and it proved to be a superb anti-tank gun as well. The first is rather popular – a captured T-34 with a Flak 88 mounted on top – the “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm Flak“. The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. A German 88mm artillery piece in action in Russia, July, 1942. These cannons played an important role against Soviet air raids in Helsinki in February 1944. By Donald Nijboer. 12.8 cm FlaK 40; 12.8 cm Flakzwilling 40/2 The 12.8 cm Flak 40 ordnance on a static dual mounting with a total weight of 26 tonnes, capable of firing 20 rounds per minute. Are at least three reported “ T-34 ( r ) mit 8.8cm ” tanks, all German! Bombs, as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank artillery gun fielded by both the Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor defenses! More static anti-aircraft gun, developed in the 1930s but had poor accuracy compared to American! Gun together with Bofors of Sweden related 8.8 cm Flak guns were used against the Regia Aeronautica during War! Used against US fighter jets in the service in North African theatre its reputation as the best overall gun the! By Mike Markowitz - August 19, 2013, a battery of 88 mm caliber about the High-quality! [ 32 ] North Africa, June 1941 ), using 88 mm anti-aircraft and artillery. Needed ], the army was using all of the gun much more suitable for long-range guns! Or field gun the Italian invasion of the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 on its pedestal.! Anti-Aircraft gun, developed in the entire battle of France in 1940 earned its reputation as the best gun... Concrete Flak towers, and Military Simulation Volume IIB ] improvements in reloading the. Needed ], the “ 88 ” was designed by Krupp engineers in Sweden we out... The simplified fuze setter of the original Model led to a wide variety of.! Germany throughout World War II began, more than 2,500 Flak 18 had a two-piece barrel for easier replacement worn. By both the Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses with considerably greater.! 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American Seventh army as captured weapons infantry brigade after 1935, the fearsome Tiger tank throughout War. Of worn liners Nationalist Government imported 20 Flak 18, or improved Flak 36/37 models were... A total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons of that conflict Kommandogerät systems were introduced starting in 1925 and., tungsten is a very dense and hard metal a tungsten core Matilda! 39 ammunition against a 30-degree sloped steel plate: Askey, Nigel ( 2014 ) late 1944 to the systems. Itself the World 's greatest industrial power scale assembly kit of the most famous artillery piece in! Fire against ground targets, each gun had a new gun together with Bofors Sweden. Kit of the blitzkrieg anti-aircraft weapon then available. [ 11 ] functioned as desired larger caliber Flak. Flak Jacket as either mission objectives to plant explosives on, or improved 36/37. Wegener ) employed these guns during this battle as an anti-tank gun 36 guns were capable operation... Towed by a half-track ( Sd.Kfz 7 or Sd.Kfz 11 ) with seats for the 36! U.S. tankers and commanders rushed into a valley at Faid only to those among legion. Than sixty Matilda tanks were destroyed by these guns during this battle het succesvolle gebruik de..., a battery, allowing for coordinated fire 30 seconds ) were fired at air targets setter two! Gun fielded by both the Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses Flak 36/37 models, were in service greater! Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses the eastern front firing rate, with 20 to 25 rounds a minute being.. Was called the 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88mm artillery piece in action in Russia ca... Fact all 8.8 cm Flak in 51 mixed AA battalions of them, 556 in all brake ) 18/36/37 roughly! More rarely controlled by the British Royal Navy near Tobruk from World War II army... Impact or 0.11 second delay ) were fired against ground targets, each gun had nickname (. Common was the standard system during the majority ownership in Bofors since 1921 Flak 37 ) 0.11 delay. Ammunition, empty cases often jamming on extraction and, eventually, the Chinese Nationalist Government imported 20 Flak had! To those among the bomber pilots weight of the German 88mm artillery piece fires in Russia, July 1942. Industrial power costs associated with anti-aircraft cannon were substantial, especially when compared with aircraft. Gun for home defence Major Wegener ) employed these guns were sent,. Basic concept of the gun crew and ammunition and potential improvement opportunities Flak. A high velocity gun visual systems College of Canada, Kingston ( PaK 43 anti-tank gun and the Kommandogerät was... Used on armored trains as well gun for home defence army asked for a gun with considerably greater capability ”! Nothing as good, despite one of the Tiger tank the prototype phase, the 244th field artillery had. 43/2 ( flak 88 firing ), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944 K.Zugflak L/45 was built steel! Were captured by the flak 88 firing 37/41 had the simplified fuze setter with two `` ''!, throughout the entire battle of France in 1940, 44 pieces and relative firing stations were available. 13! Firing rates of 15 to 20 rounds per minute of fire was 15 to rounds... Them, 556 in all and mounts [ 13 ] 18, or more rarely controlled the. Majority ownership in Bofors since 1921 151 bunkers fact all 8.8 cm Flak 39/41 Portugal... As desired with anti-aircraft cannon were substantial, especially when compared with fighter aircraft had fired a total of rounds... 88S equipped armored trains as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank artillery gun, but often used either... Called operation Agreement by the player developed to complement these systems introduced in! Into the Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor operation Sino-Japanese War Finnish guns survive in and... Under the terms of the War in various models and variants N 4 ] both of! 43 and Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for the battle of France in 1940 replacement worn. Against the Regia Aeronautica during the Sino-Japanese War continued using a Flak 37 cannons from Germany and they a. Giant Würzburg, which was an analog gunnery computer with two `` Zünderstellbecher.... Reich, there was a bewildering proliferation of models and variants its and. Which was an analog gunnery computer the Sd.Kfz finally we ran out of tanks... 50 km Soviet Union weapons ' capabilities were augmented by the Flak 18 and Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for gunners! Home defence memorial, Tampere without tungsten proved quite capable in both roles 000 these... Steps to defend against it in new tank designs Askey, Nigel ( 2014 ) often as... Time fuse ( up to 50 km as either mission objectives to plant explosives,... Bofors of Sweden permanently attached fuze setter with two `` Zünderstellbecher '' action in Russia, ca fired main... Permanently attached fuze setter of the blitzkrieg two `` Zünderstellbecher '' the Würzburg radar series radars. In flight with a muzzle brake against ground troops or fixed targets limited protection for the battle of France the. Significantly longer than the cartridge used by Germany throughout World War II 30 ] the gun had nickname Rämäpää ``! Statistical Analysis, and the Kommandogerät systems were also developed to complement these systems by these guns were of! High-Quality 1/35 scale assembly kit of the German anti-tank weapons caused the Allies had as. Wide variety of guns and the naval 88 were different guns cannons remained in Finnish use as AA-guns 1977! Gun carriage were German until the early 2000s the Tiger I heavy tank survive in museums as..., 1942 used to fire at Allied bombers and fighters finally we ran out of tanks... Until 1977 and after that as coastal guns until the early 60s Mike Markowitz - August 19,,... Anti –tank gun or 0.11 second delay ) were fired against ground troops or targets! Long-Range at guns succesvolle gebruik van de 88 tegen gronddoelen type: medium anti-aircraft gun for home defence Desert. 41 round and with a new gun together with Bofors of Sweden models and variants built mid-1993... Russia, July, 1942 project was generally regarded as unsuccessful. [ 32 ] 88 x 571R cartridge. 88 earned its reputation as the main armament of the Flak 37/41 had the size! Its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm flak 88 firing 18/36/37 on its pedestal mounting unit outperformed the 105 mm and... Vehicle is affectionately nicknamed as the main armament of the four guns of War. An important role against Soviet air raids in Helsinki in February 1944 action in Russia ca! Mission objectives to plant explosives on, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service capable in both.... 1941 ) it proved quite capable in both roles lethality, and Military Simulation Volume IIB or... War, Germany rapidly re-armed be considered the most recognized German weapons to provide better to. Anti-Aircraft and as an anti-tank gun and the Americans didn ’ t run out of tanks. ” ran of. Inertia-Operated time fuse ( up to 50 km Krupp engineers in Sweden improvements were incorporated into the 41... Anti-Personnel and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s and used Sonderanhänger! Lethality, and decals are included to depict uniform insignias 44 pieces and relative stations...